In the early days of mass communication, people believed that the media had a direct and powerful influence on audiences. This way of thinking about media influence became known as the Hypodermic Needle Theory. Of course, communication is a complex process and this theory soon proved inadequate. The Two Step Flow Theory suggests that opinion leaders pay close attention to the mass media and pass on their interpretation of media messages to others.
Two-step Flow Theory Introduction Communications is a complex and complicated art that is made up of rich theories and hypotheses. These theories attempt to explain the usefulness and importance of mass media, advertising, public relations and more.
One theory that has always been popular and thoroughly talked about in research and academic studies is the two-step flow theory of communications. The two-step flow theory of communications explains how information from the media moves in two distinct stages. These actions are done through influential opinion leaders and their effects on the thought processes of their audiences.
The study primarily focused on the process of decision making during a Presidential election campaign.
The three researchers were expecting that evidence would point to direct influence of media messages on voting intentions. However, they were surprised to find that personal contacts were mentioned more frequently than exposure to mass media as sources of influence on voting behavior.
Friends, family and opinion leaders were more likely to sway and change opinions of large audiences over radio or newspaper. From this information, the two-step flow theory of communications originated. An intermediary is introduced between the sender, or the mass media, and the audience.
This new or secondary step in the dissemination of information is typically an influential figure or opinion leader with greater access to information than the audience.
They have the authority to dissect and explain the message as they please and, subsequently, influence the opinions of the final receivers, or the individuals in social contact with the opinion leader. One of the most important parts of this theory that directly affects the movement of the message and its impact is the beliefs and ideas of the personal contact or opinion leader.
The information coming from the opinion leader is altered with personal opinions and research, thus the original message is not the same as it started in the media. If they did not transmit content based on their own opinions, then there would be no communications hypothesis challenging the idea of strong media effects.
Another important part of the two-step flow theory to understand is that audiences are more likely to be influenced by others like themselves, which alters where and how they are receiving the information. According to Elihu Katz, former communications scientist at Columbia University, opinion leaders are almost equal in proportions in every social group and stratum and that there is a homogeneity of opinions amongst these groups.
For an audience, opinion leaders and their personal influences are trustworthy, flexible and non-purposive because they are similar.
For example, religious persons are more likely to listen to their pastor because he or she is equal to their status and shares many of the same beliefs. Applications in Public Relations The two-step flow theory of communications is important to public relations because of the influence it has on large audiences.
If media or public relations professionals are sending out information in hopes of crafting a specific message for an audience and opinion leaders heavily alter that information, then the impact of the message has also been altered.The two-step flow of communication model says that most people form their opinions under the influence of opinion leaders, who in turn are influenced by the mass kaja-net.com contrast to the one-step flow of the hypodermic needle model or magic bullet theory, which holds that people are directly influenced by mass media, according to the two-step flow model, ideas flow from mass media to opinion.
The Two Step Flow Theory suggests that opinion leaders pay close attention to the mass media and pass on their interpretation of media messages to others. Unlike the Hypodermic Needle Theory, The Two Step Flow Theory maintains that audiences are active participants in the communication process.
The two-step flow theory has improved our understanding of how the mass media influence decision making. The theory refined the ability to predict the influence of media messages on audience behavior, and it helped explain why certain media campaigns may have failed to .
One theory that has always been popular and thoroughly talked about in research and academic studies is the two-step flow theory of communications. The two-step flow theory of communications explains how information from the media moves in two distinct stages.
The Two Step Flow Theory of communication is superior to the Hypodermic Needle Theory in a number of ways. First, it acknowledges that audiences are composed of individuals who are part of a society.
They actively interpret media messages and are influenced by people around them. Based on this researched data, The Two Step Flow Communication Theory of Mass Communication was developed by Katz and Paul Lazarsfeld. Opinion Leader: Opinion Leader is a leader for a certain group who gives details and.