Your review is highly informative and journal-worthy in quality of analysis and organization. It is a rare book that seeks to unify both psychiatric and shamanic perspectives. Are there cases where it is a complex of organic and spiritual causes? The question is not purely academic for me.
LGBT themes in African diasporic mythologies The celestial creator deity of Dahomey mythology is Mawu-Lisaformed by a merger of the twin brother and sister gods Lisa the moon and Mawa the sun.
In combined form, they presented as intersex or transgender with changing gender. These personification manifest as androgynous or transgender A comparison of shamanism with spirit possession cults, and include Abrao Jupiter Aku Mercury and Awo Moon. The possessed are usually women, but can also be men, and both genders are regarded as the "bride" of the deity while possessed.
The language used to describe possession has a sexual and violent connotation but unlike in Yoruba-derived American religions, there is no link assumed between possession and homosexual or gender variant activity in everyday life.
Set's attempts to prove his superiority include schemes of seduction, in which he compliments Horus on his buttocks and tries to anally penetrate him. Unknowingly failing, Set ejaculates between Horus's thighs, allowing Horus to collect his semen to use against him.
Horus then deliberately spreads his own semen on some lettuce, which was Set's favorite food the Egyptians thought that lettuce was phallic. After Set has eaten the lettuce, they go to the gods to try to settle the argument over the rule of Egypt.
The gods first listen to Set's claim of dominance over Horus, and call his semen forth, but it answers from the river, invalidating his claim. Then, the gods listen to Horus' claim of having dominated Set, and call his semen forth, and it answers from inside Set.
In some versions, the act between Horus and Set was consensual, if improper, and Set's consumption of Horus' seed produced Thoth 's lunar disc, thus being somewhat positive in outcome. Human fertility was a major aspect of Egyptian mythology, and was often entwined with the crop fertility provided by annual flooding of the river Nile.
Isis and her sister Nephthys are considered to possibly be a couple, both having children with Osiris and Wadjet the scorpion goddess is also associated with her.
Isis also appeared in the Greek myth of Iphis, allowing two women to marry. Mythologies of Oceania[ edit ] Australian Aboriginal[ edit ] The indigenous population of Australia have a shamanistic religion, which includes a pantheon of gods.
The rainbow serpent god Ungud has been described as androgynous or transgender. Shaman identify their erect penises with Ungud, and his androgyny inspires some to undergo ceremonial subincision of the penis.
They are sometimes depicted as gynandrous or intersex, having both a penis and a vagina. This is represented in ritual by having their part played by men in women's clothes. Hawaiian and Maori[ edit ] Polynesian religions feature a complex pantheon of deities.
Many of these gods refer to their companions of either sex as "aikane", a term encompassing passionate friendship and sexual-love, often in bisexual contexts. During his life Lohiau was the lover of both the female Pele and male Paoa. Celebes, Vanuatu, Borneo and the Philippines[ edit ] Third gender, or gender variant, spiritual intermediaries are found in many Pacific island cultures, including the bajasa of the Toradja Bare'e people of Celebesthe bantut of the Taosug people of the south Philippinesand the bayoguin of the pre-Christian Philippines.
These shamans are typically biologically male but display feminine behaviours and appearance. This name is derived from the word for shark, referring to the patronage of the shark-human hydrid creator god Qat.
The male part of this god is Mahatalawho rules the Upperworld, and is depicted as a hornbill living above the clouds on a mountain-top; the female part is Jatawho rules the Underworld from under the sea in the form of a water-snake. These two manifestations are linked via a jewel-encrusted bridge that is seen in the physical world as a rainbow.
Mahatala-Jata is served by "balian", female hierodules, and "basir" transgender shamans metaphorically described as "water snakes which are at the same time hornbills". This prompted Menjara into becoming the world's first healer, allowing her to cure her sister-in-lawbut this treatment also resulted in Menjara changing into a woman or androgynous being.
His example inspired noble families to purchase young men as lovers for their sons, creating legal relationships akin to marriage. Two-spirit In Inuit shamanism, the first two humans were Aakulujjuusi and Uumarnituq, both male. This same-sex couple desired company and decided to mate.
This sexual encounter resulted in pregnancy for Uumarnituq. As he was physically not equipped to give birth, a spell was cast that changed his sex, giving him a vagina capable of passing the child. The now-female Uumarnituq was also responsible for introducing war into the world via magic, in order to curb overpopulation.spirit possession and deprivation cults conversion hysteria, most commonly involves possession by Indian spirits and by the tokoloshe, those obscene little sprites with thickset bodies and huge penises.
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In running a web site with thousands of articles, million hits per month from all over the world, and hundreds of e-mails per week, I have come to realize, with time, that there is a terrible problem in Christendom today.
Possession and Shamanism It is widely known that there was a wave of affairs of possession in Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
The most famous one was the case of Loudun in France (–34).