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Trish Cotter, consultant to the NSW Cancer Institute, and Sarah Durkin, Ph D Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer, Cancer Council Victoria Advertising in the mass media allows public health campaigners to repeatedly expose the population to messages about the negative effects of tobacco use and the benefits of quitting.
This exposure occurs incidentally during routine media use rather than being explicitly sought, 1 so it provides a way of reaching individuals who are already thinking about quitting as well as those who are not yet at this point.
Exposure to messages in the mass media can directly influence individual decision-making about quitting as smokers view or hear campaign messages, gain new insights and reflect on the implications for their own lives.
It can also operate indirectly by influencing interpersonal discussion about tobacco use within family and friendship networks or by influencing social norms. Changes in broader social norms in turn can increase the likelihood of adoption of tobacco-control policies such as smokefree policies or increases in taxes on tobacco and these policies might also prompt further quit attempts.
Campaigns can generally expect small effect sizes, but, because they reach mass numbers of individuals within populations, the degree of change is of high practical significance.
All these comprehensive reviews reach a similar conclusion—that mass media campaigns can positively change smoking behaviour in adults and youth.
Where they differ is in the strength of their conclusions. The most comprehensive review on the effects of media campaigns on smoking behaviour was a major monograph published by the US National Cancer Institute in The content of this chapter draws largely on the content and conclusions of this most recent review.
In more recent years Australian researchers have focused on campaign elements that optimise effectiveness, such as themes and content, 1721—23 media type, 24 media placement 25,26 and the intensity and duration of campaigns.
The authors further concluded that intensity and duration of mass media campaigns might influence effectiveness. In a prospective population study in Massachusetts, greater population exposure to aggregated televised media campaigns among adult smokers was associated with a higher likelihood of quitting at a two-year follow-up.
Summary Adult-focused mass media campaigns focusing on the negative health consequences of smoking broadcast with sufficient duration and intensity can reduce adult smoking prevalence. Experimental research on information processing supports the hypothesis that advertisements that evoke high arousal will receive greater viewer attention and will be remembered more readily than those that do not.
The National Cancer Institute review demonstrated that messages that elicited negative emotions by describing the serious health consequences of smoking scored higher on ratings on perceived effectiveness 57 and memorability 60 and were more likely to be recalled by recent quitters who believed that anti-smoking advertisements had contributed to their quit attempt.
Interpersonal pressure generated by highly and moderately emotional advertisements was positively associated with salient quitting thoughts.
Summary Negative health effects advertisements with high levels of emotion and personal testimony have the greatest potential impact on adult smokers. Biener and colleagues 56 noted particular advertisements were effective with adults and youth.
Advertisements that young people perceived as most effective were those that evoked a strong negative emotion such as fear or sadness and conveyed a thought-provoking and believable message about the serious long-term consequences of smoking.
These were perceived as more effective than advertisements that were designed as humorous or entertaining, or normative advertisements that had low emotional content or generated low cognitive engagement. These perceptions were consistent between teenage boys and girls.
Population-based research also indicates that recall of campaign messages has been associated with reduced smoking behaviour in youth 42,43 and a recent study by Biener and colleagues 58 of adolescents aged 12—17 years found that the level of the advertisements emotional intensity was a significant predictor of advertising recall.
For smokers who evaluate a campaign negatively, talking about that campaign was associated with beliefs and attitudes counter to the campaign messages.
Summary Advertisements that evoke high levels of emotion and discussion by describing the serious long-term consequences of smoking or by highlighting tobacco industry deception have been found to be most effective for youth.
That is, advertising will not have a once-and-for-good effect in reducing smoking prevalence, but creates a prompt and a reminder for those battling not to relapse as to why people need to avoid smoking, and where help can be accessed.
In these studies estimates of audience exposure to advertising are usually measured by gross ratings points GRPs or target audience ratings points TARPs i. Attempts to quantify the optimal level and duration of campaign exposure to achieve a significant impact on behaviour are challenging and a consensus across studies internationally has not yet been reached.
An Australian study using monthly tobacco control GRPs and a time-series analysis provides some guidance. It was estimated that, to achieve a temporary 0. Further, a cohort study 29 and a serial cross-sectional analysis of the aggregate effects of tobacco-control campaign exposure 70 concluded that advertising is associated with short-term increases in the likelihood of smokers making a quit attempt.
Their findings suggest that exposures of more than TARPs per week equating to approximately one or two exposures per week produce the greatest effects on quitting thoughts and quit attempts. Summary Recognising that smokers are cycling through stages of readiness to quit at different times throughout the year, it is important that sufficient funding be provided to enable repeated cycles of advertising of sufficient weight throughout the year to sustain high levels of quit attempts.
In their national study of the effects of state-sponsored campaigns across the US, Emery and colleagues found that after controlling for a range of other potential influences, media campaigns were associated with stronger anti-smoking attitudes and beliefs among youth and reduced youth smoking.
Positive effects of the campaign were increasingly found with increasing GRPs up to 10, GRPs over a two-year period an average of four exposures per month per individualbut at higher levels the effect began to attenuate, although still remaining in a positive direction.
Removing anti-smoking advertising can cause smoking behaviour to regress. A study examining the impact of de-funding the Minnesota youth tobacco-use prevention program 68 found that a range of measures of susceptibility to smoking among youth—including openness to smoking, and beliefs, attitudes and intentions to smoke—consistently increased following the de-funding of the campaign.
Summary Similar to adults, the impact of media on smoking behaviour among youth appears to be dose-related and removing advertising can result in regression in smoking behaviour. However, differences in effectiveness of media campaigns between SES groups may be the result of low levels of exposure and promotion.
The media buy for the National Tobacco Campaign was designed to maximise exposure of campaign advertising, with a lower socio-economic bias, reflecting a similar bias in the prevalence of smoking in the Australian population.
It looked at three age groups—18—34 years, 35—60 years and over 60 years—and three occupation groups: Calculating odds ratios between age groups and occupational categories revealed that within the downward trend observed in smoking prevalence over the period of the National Tobacco Campaign, the socio-demographic differences observed between age and occupational categories at baseline remained stable.American College of Cardiology.
"Banning Smoking In Public Places And Workplaces Is Good For The Heart, Study Finds." ScienceDaily. Smoking most commonly leads to diseases affecting the heart and lungs and will most commonly affect areas such as hands or feet with first signs of smoking related health issues showing up as numbness, with smoking being a major risk factor for heart attacks, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, and cancer, particularly .
Nudge theory is a flexible and modern change-management concept for: understanding of how people think, make decisions, and behave, helping . Breaking news and analysis from kaja-net.com Politics, world news, photos, video, tech reviews, health, science and entertainment news.
Get the latest news and follow the coverage of breaking news events, local news, weird news, national and global politics, and more from the world's top trusted media outlets. Summary. Regardless of whether they are new or old, choices of which media to use in communicating with smokers must balance cost, accessibility, effort, timeliness and most importantly ability to deliver access to the target group (reach) measurable against campaign objectives.