Finance Minister Bill Morneau says having more women working is part of a long-term plan to grow the economy. However, Morneau, who also announced the introduction of up to five weeks of parental leave for fathers or non-birth parents to encourage greater sharing of child-rearing responsibilities, did not address a question on the limits of legislation and what the government can do to address societal barriers that could contribute the gender pay gap. The government has yet to announce further specifics on either policy.
In this article we aim to resolve these controversies. Phillips, ;Squires, widely assert that women are best equipped to represent the interests of their gender.
For permissions, please e-mail: Parliamentary Affairs 1—20 doi: Motivated by such arguments for fairer descriptive representation and the potential substantive political changes it represents, much research over the last 25 years e.
Despite the fact that these studies have brought forth a wide range of institutional e. One factor, whose impact is strongly contested in the literature, is the rate of female participation in the labour force. While various studies i. Rule, ; Norris, ;Rosenbluth et al.
Some empirical studies e. Paxton, report that its impact is nil. Krook ; agree that there is a direct link between descriptive and substantive representation, there are few researchers e. In the third section we present the control variables and their operationalisation.
The fourth section focuses on the statistical procedures that we employ for this study. Finally, we present a summary of the main arguments of this paper and highlight some avenues for further research.
For more than two centuries, concern about the political rights and participation of women has been a constant. As early asBritish feminist Mary Wollstone- craft argued in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman that women should have the same fundamental rights as men. More focusing on political rights, J.
Mill contends in The Subjection of Women nearly 80 years later that until women were given the right to vote, they would not become active citizens.
In the post-World War II era this reasoning was extended to political representa- tion.
Duverger, ;Currell,over the past 60 years, have repeatedly argued that equality in rights and pay is a precursor for women to gain access to positions of political power.
This directly entails that if women want to become politically represented, they have to become visible in society and push through demands for fairer representation.
The supply and demand metaphors, which, scholars e. Norris, inter- ested in the study of the legislative representation of women, have borrowed from the social movement scholarship e. Women, who enter the labour force, may also become part of greater organisational networks such as trade unions and business groups; groups where they are very likely exposed to politics.
There is solid empirical evidence for this demand side argument. This supply side argument is straightforward and contends that low levels of women in the labour force constrain women, who wish to enter the political arena, because they have neither the capacity nor the experience to mount cam- paigns and contend realistically in elections Iversen and Rosenbluth,p.
For example, Schlozman et al.Today 80% of American women with a college education are in the labour force compared with 67% of those with a high school diploma and 47% of those without one. 1 and 2 we present the labour force participation rates of older men and women aged in Canada since From into the early s, the participation.
Women of Canada,).1 In countries like Canada, where the Aboriginal population makes up a large, young, and rapidly growing proportion of the population, the engage- ment of Aboriginal peoples in the labour force is seen more broadly as important for.
In women comprised 13% of the total labour force and the female labour-force participation rate (FLFPR, defined as that proportion of working-age female population with jobs or looking for jobs) was 14% (this refers to women who worked for pay; many women worked but were not paid).
2 1. Introduction One of the most salient features of the labour market in Turkey is the lower labor force participation rates of women.
This article examines how the issue of low level of. This paper, which follows the emergence of the salmon industry in the s in Chiloé, Chile, demonstrates that factors restricting women’s participation in labor force and wage differences between women and men are related to the gender systems operating in Chiloe.