Literary Terms Galileo by Bertolt Brecht:
Galileo Galilei — Italian astronomer, mathematician, physicist, and philosopher.
Galileo is regarded as one of the greatest scientific thinkers of the Renaissance. His questioning of Aristotelian and Ptolemaic concepts of physics and astronomy, his studies of motion, his refinement of the telescope, and his subsequent discoveries about the universe were to have far-reaching, influential effects on the way people think about the earth and the heavens.
Galileo's ideas also got him into trouble: In he enrolled at the University of Pisa as a medical student, but his interests soon turned to the field of mathematics, and he received a teaching position at the University in From the beginning, Galileo's strong disagreement with popular Aristotelian theories of motion and gravity led him into conflict with his academic peers, and he was eventually forced to resign as Chair of Mathematics at Pisa.
Inhowever, he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at Padua. Cosimo was later to become the Grand Duke of Tuscany and Galileo's patron. And it was to the Grand Duke's mother, Christina, that Galileo wrote his fateful Lettera a Madama Cristina de Lorena written ; published ; Letter to Madame Christina of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscanyin which he unsuccessfully attempted to reconcile the Church and Biblical exegesis with the Copemican heliocentric system.
Well before this disastrous event, however, a supernova occurred in ; it was visible to the human eye and drew Galileo into a heated debate with those who believed in Aristotle's theory that the heavens were immutable. Galileo's life took a decisive turn in with the invention of the telescope in Holland.
A year later, Galileo made refinements to the telescope which allowed him to view not only the stars in the Milky Way but also four moons around Jupiter, spots on the sun, and the rugged and uneven surface of the earth's moon.
Galileo published these findings in Sidereus nuncius ; The Starry Messenger in which he began to think seriously about the likelihood of a Copernican universe.
The Starry Messenger was well-received, but a later, more candid discussion of Copernicanism, published in as Historia e dimonstrazioni intorno alle macchie solari Sunspot Letters was condemned by the Church as an outspoken defense of heliocentrism. After it was written, however, the Pontiff criticized the Dialogue for two reasons: Events happened fairly quickly after that: In February ofthe Dialogue was published; in October of that same year, Galileo was ordered to come to Rome to answer before the Inquisition.
In June ofGalileo was compelled to repudiate the Dialogue on his knees before his accusers. He was sentenced as a heretic and condemned to imprisonment for life—a sentence that was softened to house arrest with the understanding that Galileo would never again publish his writings.
When he died inhe was blind but still publishing—although outside Italy. To the end of his life, Galileo insisted that there was no conflict between Copernicanism and his own devotion to the Church.
Major Works Galileo's major works include The Starry Messenger, which generated much positive excitement when it focused people's eyes for the first time on what was actually happening in the sky. His Sunspot Letters, on the other hand, are notorious. As Stillman Drake points out, Galileo wrote these Letters in Italian rather than in Latin a scholarly and liturgical language that was universal only to those who were educated ; by contrast, the colloquial Letters were accessible to "practically everyone in Italy who could read.
Galileo's most famous work, the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, is well-known not for its rigid defense of the Copernican against the Ptolemaic system for it was meant to consider the two impartially ; instead, it is infamous because Galileo wrote it after he had apparently been forbidden to write or teach anything at all about the Copernican system.
Thus the Dialogue was catalyst for Galileo's appearance and conviction before the Inquisition. Yet he does so while trying to prove that heliocentrism and the interpretation of the Bible are not at odds. Thus, it has "become a classic in literature relating to the conflict between science and religion," and "passages [from it] are often quoted for the sheer power of their expression and the acuity of their observations.
Several scholars have called into question the very existence of the document of in which Galileo was supposed to have promised never to teach or write about the Copernican system. Instead, some specialists now argue that the sharptongued and not always diplomatic Galileo became a convenient pawn in a power struggle between members of the Church of Rome as a result of the Counter-Reformation—a time when the Catholic Church was trying to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation.
Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy, on February 18, , to a family of aristocratic lineage but average wealth. When he was seventeen, his father, a noted musician who also earned money in the wool trade, sent him to study medicine at the University of Pisa. Galileo, however, soon turned to a. Introduction to Galileo Galilei Chronology of Galileo's Life; Galileo's Education; Collegio Romano; Accademia dei Lincei; Galileo's Patrons; Duke of Mantua Medici Family; Paolo Sarpi; Urban VIII; Federico Cesi; Important Places; Florence and Tuscany; Map of Florence; Italy. Life of Galileo. Michael Fowler, UVa. Vincenzio wrote this in the introduction to Dialogue on Ancient and Modern Music (Google books). "If Galileo had only known how to retain the favor of the fathers of this college, he would have stood in renown before the world;.
Finocchiaro observes, Galileo's trial occurred "during the so-called Thirty Years War between Catholics and Protestants….Life of Galileo (German: Leben des Galilei), also known as Galileo, is a play by the twentieth-century German dramatist Bertolt Brecht with incidental music by Hanns Eisler.
The play was written in and received its first theatrical production (in German) at the Zurich Schauspielhaus, opening on 9 . Watch video · Galileo obeyed the order for seven years, partly to make life easier and partly because he was a devoted Catholic.
In , a friend of Galileo, Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, was elected as Pope. So it seems with Brecht's "Life of Galileo", a thoroughly fictionalized portrayal of events in the s that sounds, in the English translation, like a TV dramatization from the s. But the translation is fair to the original, which sounds like German of the s/5(8).
Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy, on February 18, , to a family of aristocratic lineage but average wealth. When he was seventeen, his father, a noted musician who also earned money in the wool trade, sent him to study medicine at the University of Pisa.
Galileo, however, soon turned to a. This Student Edition of Brecht's classic dramatisation of the conflict between free enquiry and official ideology features an extensive introduction and commentary that includes a plot summary, discussion of the context, themes, characters, style and language as well as questions for further study and notes on words and phrases in the kaja-net.com: Bertolt Brecht.
Life of Galileo. Michael Fowler, UVa. Vincenzio wrote this in the introduction to Dialogue on Ancient and Modern Music (Google books). "If Galileo had only known how to retain the favor of the fathers of this college, he would have stood in renown before the world;.