Morgan's Canon Coined by 19th-century British psychologist C. Lloyd MorganMorgan's Canon remains a fundamental precept of comparative animal psychology. In its developed form, it states that: In other words, Morgan believed that anthropomorphic approaches to animal behavior were fallacious, and that people should only consider behaviour as, for example, rational, purposive or affectionate, if there is no other explanation in terms of the behaviours of more primitive life-forms to which we do not attribute those faculties.
The younger, Lynnwas a medievalist specializing in the history of science and magic, while the older, Ashleywas an English professor and noted authority on Shakespeare.
While at Harvard, he was interested in how animals learn ethologyand worked with William James. Upon graduation, Thorndike returned to his initial interest, educational psychology.
Inafter a year of unhappy initial employment at the College for Women of Case Western Reserve in ClevelandOhio, he became an instructor in psychology at Teachers College at Columbia University, where he remained for the rest of his career, studying human learning, education, and mental testing.
In Thorndike became the second President of the Psychometric Societyfollowing in the footsteps of Louis Leon Thurstone who had established the society and its journal Psychometrika the previous year.
On August 29,he wed Elizabeth Moulton. They had four children, among them Franceswho became a mathematician. An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals", was the first in psychology where the subjects were nonhumans. When the cats were put into the cages they would wander restlessly and meow, but they did not know how to escape.
The learning curve also suggested that different species learned in the same way but at different speeds. They have all been about animal intelligence, never about animal stupidity. He reasoned that if the animals were showing insight, then their time to escape would suddenly drop to a negligible period, which would also be shown in the learning curve as an abrupt drop; while animals using a more ordinary method of trial and error would show gradual curves.
His finding was that cats consistently showed gradual learning. For classification purposes, soldiers were administered Alpha tests.
With the realization that some soldiers could not read well enough to complete the Alpha test, the Beta test consisting of pictures and diagrams was administered.
Such contributions anchored the field of psychology and encouraged later development of educational psychology. Thorndike believed that "Instruction should pursue specified, socially useful goals.
Thorndike also stated the law of effectwhich says behaviors that are followed by good consequences are likely to be repeated in the future.
Thorndike identified the three main areas of intellectual development. The first being abstract intelligence.
This is the ability to process and understand different concepts. The second is mechanical intelligence, which is the ability to handle physical objects. Lastly there is social intelligence. This is the ability to handle human interaction  Learning is incremental.
Law of use- the more often an association is used the stronger it becomes. An animal will try multiple responses if the first response does not lead to a specific state of affairs.
For example, he placed a cat inside a wooden box. The cat would use various methods while trying to get out, however nothing would work until it hit the lever.
Afterwards, Thorndike tried placing the cat inside the wooden box again. This time, the cat was able to hit the lever quickly and succeeded in getting out from the box. At first, Thorndike emphasized the importance of dissatisfaction stemming from failure as equal to the reward of satisfaction with success, though in his experiments and trials on humans he came to conclude that reward is a much more effective motivator than punishment.
He also emphasized that the satisfaction must come immediately after the success, or the lesson would not sink in. Thorndike was among some of the first psychologists to combine learning theory, psychometrics, and applied research for school-related subjects to form psychology of education.Thorndike, Edward L.
(Edward Lee), An introduction to the theory of mental and social measurements / (New York: Teacher's College, Columbia University, , c) (page images at HathiTrust). Thorndike’s other books include Educational Psychology (), Introduction to the Theory of Mental and Social Measurements (), The Elements of Psychology (), and Animal Intelligence ().
The biographical profile of Edward L. Thorndike, focusing on his/her contributions to the development of intelligence theory and testing. Interactive Map | Alphabetical Index | Time Introduction to the Theory of Mental and Social Measurements () The Elements of Psychology ().
Animal learning - Imprinting: The young of many species are born relatively helpless: in songbirds, rats, cats, dogs, and primates, the hatchling or newborn infant is wholly dependent on its parents. These are altricial species. In other species, such as domestic fowl, ducks, geese, ungulates, and guinea pigs, the hatchling or newborn is at a more advanced stage of development.
Introduction. The more we read, the more we realise that there are many different ways of explaining how adults learn (Merriam et al. Merriam SB, Caffarella RS, Baumgartner kaja-net.comng in adulthood: A comprehensive guide.
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