She torched Londinium, leaving a charred layer almost half a meter thick that can still be traced under modern London. Why was she so angry? She was born around AD 25 to a royal family in Celtic Britain, and as a young woman she married Prasutagus, who later became king a term adopted by the Celts, but as practiced by them, more of an elected chief of the Iceni tribe.
Celtic mythology The Irish heroic cycles were committed to writing in the Mediaeval period, some time after the pre-Christian era they are supposed to depict. The Welsh Celtic warfare essay dates from roughly the same era. No remains of these vehicles from the period have yet been discovered.
Celtic tribes fought amongst each other and sometimes they allied themselves with the Romansthe Greeks and other peoples against other Celtic tribes. Tribal warfare appears to have been a regular feature of Celtic societies.
While epic literature depicts this as more of a sport focused on raids and hunting rather than organised territorial conquest, the historical record is more of tribes using warfare to exert political control and harass rivals, for economic advantage, and in some instances to conquer territory.
Archaeology provides much information regarding the material culture of the Celts, but the significance of these finds in determining how the ancient Celts actually fought is the subject of much speculation. The earlier phases of the Hallstatt era fall into the Bronze Age.
In the latter phases of the Hallstatt era, iron began to replace bronze in the Celtic warfare essay of weapons and the classic "Celtic longsword" with its leaf-bladed design made its appearance. Chariot burials are also characteristic of the period; it is possible that they also served some function in the warfare of this age, but the chariots are four-wheeled vehicles and they do not occur at all in Britain.
During the succeeding centuries the design of the sword changed, characteristically becoming shorter, single-edged and lacking a thrusting point, designed purely to make a cut although the Hallstatt era sword had also been primarily a slashing weapon  and greater regional variation in swords appeared: The earliest precursor to mail is so-called ringmail, in which the rings, instead of being linked together, are sewn directly onto a fabric backing.
Finds of mail are rare, suggesting that it was a luxury restricted to high status warriors. A wide variety of crested helmets also belong to this period and occur in greater numbers than is the case with mail, but overall the picture is of Celtic armies being made up largely of lighty armoured or unarmoured fighters.
The arrangement of the chariot poles in a reconstruction of the Wetwang Chariot suggests they were drawn by small ponies only 11 or 12 hands high  and thus seem unlikely to be used in a frontal charge. Because chariot burials were never practised in Ireland, the nature or existence of chariot warfare in that country remains unclear.
Continuation in Ireland Edit Roman conquest eventually extinguished the independence of all the Celtic peoples except in Ireland and the far North of Britain.
After the Roman era, only in the British Isles, therefore, could there be said to still exist a distinctly Celtic style of warfare. Gallic Wars Main article: The Romans would also raid Britannia and Germania, but these expeditions never developed into full-scale invasions. The wars paved the way for Caesar to become the sole ruler of the Roman Republic.
Sculpture of an armoured torc-wearing Celtic warrior, Vacheres France. The best known Roman source for descriptions of Celtic warfare is Julius Caesar in his Commentaries on the Gallic Wars Commentarii de Bello Gallico in which he describes the methods of warfare of both the Gauls and the Britons.
In describing battles against various tribes of Gauls, in contrast to the popular picture of the wild Celtic berserkerCaesar talks of the Helvetii fighting in close order, forming a phalanx as a defence against cavalry and advancing in a close formation. He mentions the use of javelins by the Belgic Nervii but despite Roman writers frequently referring to the use of swords by the Celts in battle, Caesar never mentions Gaulish troops fighting en masse with swords.
By the mid-1st century BCE, Celtic tribes in Gaul may have had a core of properly trained and equipped professional soldiers, drawn from the traditional warrior caste, in addition and in contrast to the general tribal levy of lightly armed and armoured freemen.
Caesar emphasises the "barbarian" aspect of the Britons, possibly for political reasons since his expedition there was of necessity brief, describing how they wore animal skins, had wives in common, did not grow crops and dyed their skin blue: Outside Britain, small pots of orange paste have been found in the vicinity of Cerro del Castillowhich has led to the proposition that if the Celtiberians used it in a similar manner to Caesar's description, they would have painted themselves orange rather than blue.
Celtic troop types and organization Edit No Celtic group employed a regular military as we would understand it. Organisation was according to clan grouping and social class.Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more.
Get started now! A Brief History of the Celtic Warrior and the Nature of Celtic Warfare PAGES 2.
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Read the full essay. Celtic People Culture There is a considerable amount of confusion and discussion about the origins, lifestyle, and culture of the Celtic people, also know as Gauls.
The reason for the historical confusion and conjecture is that the Ancient Celtic people did not keep written . Celtic mythology is unique in that there are gods associated with female traits like fertility and goddesses associated with more masculine characteristics such as war.
Celtic warfare Celtic warriors were well equipped with an arsenal of weapons and armor, and were always ready to fight. During battles, they dressed in long oval shields that covered most of their body. Celtic warfare Celtic warriors were well equipped with an arsenal of weapons and armor, and were always ready to fight.
During battles, they dressed in long oval shields that covered most of their body.