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Fagan Pennsylvania State University Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history. In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries.
This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history.
Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight.
With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: The Roman Republic had no written constitution but was, rather, a system of agreed-upon procedures crystallized by tradition the mos maiorum, "the way of our ancestors".
Administration was carried out by mostly annually elected officials, answerable to the senate a senior council, but with no legislative powers and the people who, when constituted into voting assemblies, were the sovereign body of the state. Precedent prescribed procedure and consensus set the parameters for acceptable behavior.
Near the end of the second century BC, however, the system started to break down. Politicians began to push at the boundaries of acceptable behavior, and in so doing set new and perilous precedents.
Violence also entered the arena of domestic politics. This long process of disintegration, completed a century later by Augustus, has been termed by modern scholars the "Roman Revolution. Politics had come to be dominated by violence and intimidation; scores were settled with clubs and daggers rather than with speeches and persuasion.
Powerful generals at the head of politicized armies extorted from the state more and greater power for themselves and their supporters. When "constitutional" methods proved inadequate, the generals occasionally resorted to open rebellion.
Intimidation of the senate through the use of armies camped near Rome or veterans brought to the city to influence the voting assemblies also proved effective and was regularly employed as a political tactic from ca. These generals also used their provincial commands to extract money from the locals as a way of funding their domestic political ambitions.
As the conflict in the state wore on, popular assemblies, the only avenue for the passage of binding legislation in the Roman Republic, routinely ended in disorder and rioting. The senatorial aristocracy, riven by internal disputes, proved incapable of dealing effectively with the mounting disorder, yet the alternative, monarchy, was not openly proposed by anyone.
When civil war erupted between Pompey and Caesar in 49 BC, few could have been surprised. These two men were the strongest personalities in the state, each in command of significant military forces, and they were mutually antagonistic.
His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship.
Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems for instance, debt relief or the calendarbut he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place.
In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds.
He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial "Liberators," covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated.
They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing []. The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M.
Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M.
For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Early Life and Adoption C. Octavius later Augustus was born on 23 September, 63 BC, the son of a man from Velitrae who had reached the praetorship before dying unexpectedly when Octavius was four.Incident in a Ghostland.
Incident in a Ghostland (aka Ghostland) is a France / Canada horror mystery thriller by Pascal Laugier. Starring Crystal Reed, Mylène Farmer and Anastasia Phillips. Lectionary Reflection. Transfiguration of our Lord. February 19, For it is the God who said, ‘Let light shine out of darkness,’ who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. DIR Atlas AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.) [Additional entry on this emperor's life is available in DIR Archives]. Garrett G. Fagan Pennsylvania State University. Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history.
Paul after the Damascus Road - The Apostle Paul, the Apostle to the Gentiles, is a central figure within both Christian tradition and New Testament thought and writing. With such a crucial place, it is vital that we come to understand more of his life and thinking, as well as the world in which he and, more specifically, his theology were shaped.
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Modern pop culture declares that atheism is a "scientific" worldview. But most of the key contributors to modern science were theists and often Christian.