Efficacy[ edit ] The first major challenge to conventional eugenics based upon genetic inheritance was made in by Thomas Hunt Morgan. He demonstrated the event of genetic mutation occurring outside of inheritance involving the discovery of the hatching of a fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with white eyes from a family with red eyes. As only very few undesirable traits, such as Huntington's disease, are dominant, it could be argued[ by whom? The elevated prevalence of certain genetically transmitted diseases among the Ashkenazi Jewish population Tay—Sachscystic fibrosisCanavan's diseaseand Gaucher's diseasehas been decreased in current populations by the application of genetic screening.
The term eugenics, derived from the Greek eugenes, was first coined by the English mathematician and geographer Francis Galton — in his Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development to refer to one born "good in stock, hereditarily endowed with noble qualities.
Davenport —"the improvement of the human race by better breeding. Eugenics was the human counterpart of scientific animal and plant husbandry. It seemed ironic to eugenicists that human beings paid such careful attention to the pedigrees of their farm and domestic stock while ignoring the pedigrees of their children.
The ideology of eugenics was characterized by a strong belief in the power of heredity in determining physical, physiological, and mental traits; an inherent ethnocentrism and racism that included belief in the inferiority of some races and superiority of others a view extended to ethnic groups and social classes as well ; and a belief in the power of science, rationally employed, to solve social problems, including ones so seemingly intractable as pauperism, crime, violence, urban decay, prostitution, alcoholism, and various forms of mental disease, including manic depression and "feeblemindedness" retardation.
Eugenics movements did not begin to arise in Europe or the United States until the first decade of the twentieth century, and they did not become generally effective in promoting social and political programs nationally or internationally until after The earliest eugenics movements were founded in Germany inin Britain inand in the United States in — Other eugenics movements appeared subsequently around the world: Because eugenics developed in a variety of national contexts with a wide range of ideological and political programs, its content and style varied from one country to another and over time, from the early s until just before the onset of World War II.
For example, British eugenicists were particularly concerned with the high fecundity and inherited mental degeneracy of the urban working class, particularly those labeled as "paupers.
In Germany mentally ill, psychotic, psychopathic, and psychiatric patients along with the congenitally deaf, blind, and feebleminded were of greatest concern. German eugenicists were also particularly interested in increasing the number of "fitter" elements in society positive eugenics —where prior to the National Socialist takeover in"fitness" was understood more in terms of class than of race.
Certain core principles and beliefs did link various eugenics movements together, however, and the three major international eugenics congresses, held in, andemphasized the similarities among the various movements while also revealing the differences.
The core principles of eugenics as they came to be understood by the mids were summarized in a report, Eugenical Sterilization: The report articulates four major principles: The Historical Development of Eugenics, — In most countries eugenics movements combined theory with various forms of social and political programs, from education committees to lobbying political leaders.
Before most eugenicists were well-respected members of the scientific community, and the eugenic ideas they espoused were not considered eccentric or bizarre.
|Critics warned that China was becoming the ‘Wild West’ of genetic research||Like the recent Santa Rosa fire disasterthe current wildfires are verifiably connected to conditions created by the ongoing global climate engineering assault. The 6 minute video below reveals aspects of the climate engineering assault and its connection to the California firestorms.|
|An inside view of the Chinese military over 120 years.||Myostatin is known to control muscle size in humans.|
|Eugenics in the United States Today: Are We on the Same Path Nazi Germany Followed?||At his labyrinthine laboratory on the Harvard Medical School campus, you can find researchers giving E. Coli a novel genetic code never seen in nature.|
|Eugenics in the United States Today: Are We on the Same Path Nazi Germany Followed?||Plasmids are short circular bits of DNA found naturally in bacterial cells.|
The acknowledged leader of American eugenics, Charles Davenportreceived his Ph. Along with other colleagues, these investigators contributed solid work on aspects of human inheritance as well as more tenuous studies on inheritance of feeblemindedness, mental capacity, and social traits.
In addition to such conspicuous national leaders, many well-known, rank-and-file biologists, especially in the period —, enthusiastically endorsed the aims of eugenics.
The attraction for these biologists was that the new science of genetics appeared to offer a solution to recurrent social problems that had eluded social workers and charitable organizations. Eugenics was seen as the efficient, rational, and scientific way to solve these problems by eliminating the cause rather than treating the symptoms.
These supporters all contributed in some way to spreading the eugenics message to a broader public. Financial support for eugenics research and propaganda came from the economic, political, and social elite and clearly served several special interests.
First was economic efficiency: Second, the eugenic argument that social problems originated in "bad genes" deflected criticism of social policies and conditions and placed the blame for social problems on individuals. Research Methods Eugenicists were faced with the problem of defining and measuring the traits whose patterns of inheritance they wanted to determine.
Definition posed a considerable problem when the traits were complex behaviors that were often defined in different ways in different cultures or different historical periods.
What counted as an alcoholic or a criminal?Introduction to Eugenics Eugenics is a movement that is aimed at improving the genetic composition of the human race. Historically, eugenicists advocated selective breeding to achieve these goals. Today we have technologies that make it possible to more directly alter the genetic composition of an individual.
However, people differ in their views on how to [ ]. Eugenics, the ideology of arrogance, is generally ignored. Few people even know that the word means.
But this ideology led to racism (academic racism), abortion, anti-immigration laws, population control, abuses in genetic engineering -- to mention a few. Creating an Elite Class of Super Humans. by John P. Thomas Health Impact News. This is the first part of a two part series exploring the relationship between the controversial eugenics movement of the past and modern genetics.
Each week, In Theory takes on a big idea in the news and explores it from a range of perspectives. This week we’re talking about human genetic engineering.
For a half-century, the ethics of. Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II..
Eugenics was practiced in the United States many years before eugenics programs in Nazi Germany, which were largely inspired by the previous American work.
Modern eugenics, more often called human genetic engineering, has come a long way—scientifically and ethically—and offers hope for treating many devastating genetic illnesses. Even so, it.