Equally, the subsequent history of Marxist aesthetics has hardly comprised the cumulative unfolding of a coherent perspective. Rather, it has emerged, aptly, as a series of responses to concrete political exigencies. While these responses have sometimes collided at various theoretical planes, they achieve a dynamic and expansive coherence rather than the static coherence of a closed, finished system through both a general overlap of political motivation and the persistent reworking of a core of predispositions about literature and art deriving from Marx and Engels themselves. The aesthetic corollary of this is that literature can only be understood in the fullness of its relations with ideology, class, and economic substructure.
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. The Communist Manifesto includes many concepts relating to the continuous struggles between classes and their inevitable impact on history. The specific classes discussed in the Marxism in literature Manifesto are the proletariat and the bourgeois.
The bourgeoisie has, throughout history, exploited the proletariat for reasons stemming from profit-motives. The bourgeoisie has contributed to the creation of the wage-laborer, division of labor, and the ever increasing de-skilling of labor.
In its quest for more profit, the bourgeoisie brings together workers, uniting them, and therefore creating their own means of destruction.
The concept of materialism, as Cornforth describes, supports Marxist theory. This chapter discusses how materialists seek reason in the material, economic conditions of social life. As an example, Cornforth writes: If society is divided into rich and poor, it is because the production of the material means of life is so ordered that some have possession of the land and other means of production while the rest have to work for them.
However hard they make work and however much they may scrape and save, the non-possessors will remain poor, while the possessors grow rich on the fruits of their labor. The possessors, or rich, mentioned above could be interpreted as representing the bourgeoisie and the poor, as the proletariat.
Whatever fuels capitalism, whether it be money, the abundance of humans to be used, the opportunity to expand globally, or something else, they are all material reasons. This could be said for the bourgeoisie who depend on idealistic purposes to validate their behavior and to offer a powerful reason, although false, as to why the proletariat must continue working.
Social labor is the need for people on all levels to reach production and success. Without these people, nothing would be produced and the bourgeoisie would not profit.
This poem calls attention to such workers who are often overlooked. The description of the tragedies associated with the particular job in the poem demonstrates the immiseration of the worker as Marx might describe it.
These workers sat on stools for eleven and a half hours a night and were abused by their supervisors. The job in this poem also seems to support the Marxist concept of de-skilling.
A job, as in the poem, which requires a worker to sit on a stool and stick letters for many hours, is not a job that requires much skill.
Marxism and Literature is an instance of exemplary Marxist scholarship. I think it also illustrates the ironic fact that things written by others, purportedly in a Marxist tradition, are commonly more difficult to understand than anything Marx himself ever wrote/5(5). Well, Marx says that literature is directly connected to real life, and he says he can prove it. Maybe more than any other literary theory, Marxism tries to explain exactly what that . First published in , Marxism and Literature represents the final stage in the elaboration of the concept of "cultural materialism" that critic and author Raymond Williams had already sketched.
For that reason, these workers were most likely not paid very well. Marx would agree that the de-skilling of labor is to the advantage of the bourgeoisie, who will use it as an excuse to pay less and to make more profit. Another way in which this poem supports the Communist Manifesto is through its representation of the existence between the oppressor and the oppressed.
With the desire to earn more by doing and paying less, the bourgeoisie oppresses the working class. From the beginning it is obvious that, on the factory ship, there is the division of labor. The labor on the ship is divided into different categories such as fishermen, factory hands, stewards, firemen, and management.
The primary reason that the factory ship even exists is for a profit motive, although the management attempt to cover up that motive with an idealistic and political reason. The superintendent of the ship explains to the crew that the purpose of their jobs was not to make money for the corporation but to solve a serious international problem between the Japanese and the Russians.
The labor theory of value is depicted in this novella. In order to make a profit off of the seas and the crabs, the corporation must supply the ships with crews.
Without a crew, there is no value in the existence of the sea creatures. With a profit motive and a crew to exploit, one other Marxist concept pushes the corporation even further. The corporation has satisfied its market so must search for new markets to benefit from.First published in , Marxism and Literature represents the final stage in the elaboration of the concept of "cultural materialism" that critic and author Raymond Williams had already sketched.
Marxism, a body of doctrine developed by Karl Marx and, to a lesser extent, by Friedrich Engels in the midth century. It originally consisted of three related ideas: a philosophical anthropology, a theory of history, and an economic and political program. Marxist criticism, similar to historical analysis, claims that literature is not art independent of its time and culture but rather a product of it.
However Marxism analyzes history specifically in terms of the conflict between socioeconomic classes. Marxism is all about economics, sociology, and politics. What does is really have to do with literature?" Word in Marxland is that if you want to know how they think about literature, you have to understand a big, basic distinction first.
Marxism and Literary Theory By Nasrullah Mambrol on April 12, • (7) Marxism is a materialist philosophy which tried to interpret the world based on the concrete, natural world around us and the society we live in.
Marxism in Literature Essay Sample. Many works of literature and even some films contain themes and evidence which supports Marx’s view of capitalism, as expressed in the Communist Manifesto.